JOSEPH WEIZENBAUM COMPUTER POWER AND HUMAN REASON PDF

Weizenbaum started his professional career with the General Electric Corp. He developed a programming language which retrospectively had the qualities of artificial intelligence AI. This work led him to an interest in the subject being promulgated by John McCarthy and eventually he joined the faculty at MIT where he could pursue these interests. In the early s, working with the emerging technology of time-sharing, interactive computers, he developed a mechanical psychiatrist named ELIZA, which appeared to be capable of conducting meaningful conversations.

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In he published a simple program named Eliza, which involved its users in a conversation that bore a striking resemblance to one with a psychologist. He was able to escape Nazi Germany in January , emigrating with his family to the United States, where he started studying mathematics at the Wayne State University in Detroit in However, his studies were interrupted by the war, during which he served in the military at the meteorological service of the Air Force.

In Weizenbaum returned to earn his M. Around he worked on analog computers, and helped create a digital computer for Wayne State University. He joined a General Electric Co. In he took a position at MIT as an associate professor and in he became Full professor of computer science. As a computer scientist you simply have to know Eliza. I stumbled accross this unique piece of software in the late s and — believe it or not — people really talked with this computer program as if it was a real person.

However, Joseph Weizenbaum wrote a simple program that was able to pose a few standard questions in the way a psychiatrist does and included some templates and patterns which can easily be modeled via a Finite State Automaton or Finite State Transducer used to reflect the answers of the user in a simple way. Weizenbaum adopted the use of open-ended questions that is used to encourage patients to communicate more effectively with therapists.

It was 15 years before the personal computer became familiar to the general public, and three decades before most people encountered attempts at natural language processing in Internet services. The experience prompted him to think philosophically about the implications of artificial intelligence and, later, to become a critic of it.

According to Weizenbaum, there is a crucial distinction between deciding and choosing. Deciding is a computational activity, something that can ultimately be programmed. Choice, however, is the product of judgment, not calculation. It is the capacity to choose that ultimately makes us human. Comprehensive human judgment is able to include non-mathematical factors, such as emotions. Later Years In , Weizenbaum moved back to Berlin and lived in the vicinity of his childhood neighborhood.

Joseph Weizenbaum passed away on March 5, , at age References and further reading:.

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Joseph Weizenbaum and his famous Eliza

In he published a simple program named Eliza, which involved its users in a conversation that bore a striking resemblance to one with a psychologist. He was able to escape Nazi Germany in January , emigrating with his family to the United States, where he started studying mathematics at the Wayne State University in Detroit in However, his studies were interrupted by the war, during which he served in the military at the meteorological service of the Air Force. In Weizenbaum returned to earn his M. Around he worked on analog computers, and helped create a digital computer for Wayne State University.

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Computer power and human reason : from judgment to calculation

In , he interrupted his studies to serve in the U. Army Air Corps as a meteorologist, having been turned down for cryptology work because of his "enemy alien" status. After the war, in , he returned to Wayne State, obtaining his B. In he took a position at MIT. Driven by a script named DOCTOR, it was capable of engaging humans in a conversation which bore a striking resemblance to one with an empathic psychologist. Weizenbaum modeled its conversational style after Carl Rogers , who introduced the use of open-ended questions to encourage patients to communicate more effectively with therapists.

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