Many of the new taxa worldwide are not yet represented by material adequate for publishing them. For example, Protium fragrans from Cuba falls neatly within a well-supported Icicopsis clade, as originally proposed by Swart burseracsae, similarly, the Guianas endemic P. There is surprising evidence for B. The following discusses the current status of research on the family on several scales as it becomes one of the better studied families in Amazonia. Icicopsisan object of current revision, is both variable and repetitive vegetatively while the fruits rarely help; it is possible that hair types and surface features like lenticels will yield useful keys. Preliminary study of the anti-inflammatory activity of hexane extract and fractions from Bursera simaruba Linneo Sarg.
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Order[ edit ] According to the literature, the Burseraceae have not been lumped with other families nor split up into several others. However, they have jumped orders several times. For example, in the early 19th century, the family seems to have been placed in the Burserales , with the Anacardiaceae and Podoaceae. The synapomorphies of the Sapindales include pinnately compound, alternate and spiral leaves that may be palmately compound, trifoliate, or unifoliate, and small four- or five-merous flowers having a characteristic nectar disk and imbricate petals and sepals.
One such cladogram indicated that the Sapindales are robust and that the Burseraceae and Anacardiaceae are within a single clade. The resin of the Burseraceae is nonallergenic and two ovules per carpel occur, whereas the resin of the Anacardiaceae can be allergenic or poisonous and one ovule per carpel is found. For example, members of the tribe Protieae are generally found in South America, those of the Bursereae are found in Africa and Mesoamerica , while members of the Canarieae are found in Malaysia.
Europe and Asia via the Boreotropical Land Bridge and the continents in the Southern Hemisphere, which is now the area of the greatest generic diversity of this family. Similar results from other studies   find that Beiselia mexicana, a native of Mexico, is basal to the remaining Burseraceae.
These results may indicate that the family originated in Mexico. The next divergence was in the Early Eocene when the Burserinae i. First, Dacryodes excelsa of the Canarieae is an important old-growth species found in the Caribbean. Second, Bursera simaruba of the Burserinae is a fast-growing ornamental that is one of a few representatives of the primarily tropical family in the United States. Finally, the namesakes of the family Boswellia carterii frankincense and Commiphora abyssinica myrrh are important economically and medicinally in several parts of the world.
Though this is a small subset of the large number of potentially important species, these four members exemplify the wide use and importance of the Burseraceae. The latter three are frequently cited in the literature for their renowned importance.
Commonly known as tabonuco or gommier, also candlewood , Dacryodes excelsa is a large, dominant tree found in Puerto Rico and other parts of the Caribbean. Like all members, the tree releases sap from the bark when wounded. The clear sap oozes from the tree and hardens to a white, aromatic waxy resin that can be used to make candles and incense. The wood itself is useful for constructing housing, furniture, boxes, small boats, and a variety of other wood-based products; the utility of the wood is comparable to that of mahogany and birch.
Species in the genus Bursera, especially the so-called elephant tree , grow primarily in Mexico, where their secretions are a raw material in making varnish. The gumbo limbo grows quickly and can be used to make a living fence especially out of cut limbs that are placed straight into the ground or for restoration projects as a pioneer species.
The seeds of this species are also a source of food for birds. Frankincense, or olibanum, Boswellia carterii and myrrh Commiphora abyssinica have long been valued for the aromatic resins they produce.
These resins are extracted via tapping, or cutting of the bark to make it release sap. The liquid sap hardens and is gathered, sold as is or further processed and mixed with spices, seeds, and roots to make various forms of incense. In modern times resins from these trees are used in Chinese herbal medicine and Indian Ayurvedic medicine to treat several ailments. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. Retrieved 13 March
Anti-inflammatory activities of the triterpene acids from the resin of Boswellia carteri. Subsequent cooling and drying of the global climate caused two lineages of the Protieae to move south, one towards the Old World tropics and another towards South America. Burseraceae — Wikipedia The phylogenetic history and biogeography of the frankincense and myrrh family Burseraceae based on nuclear and chloroplast sequence data. A portable dictionary of the vascular plants. In tribe Bursereae, Bursera moves toward absorbing Commiphoraas recent phylogenetic analyses are revealing new patterns within traditional lineages, with Bursera subgenus Elaphrium Jacq.
Gataur More specifically, the earliest diverging genus was Beiselia of the Bursereae subtribe Boswelliinae in either North America, Mexico, or the Caribbean in the Paleocene. In Burseraa broad sampling was important to determine the relationships of the Antillean species with their relatives in mainland Central and South America. For example, most if not all of the clade that includes Protium altsonii Sandwith, P. Biodiversity Heritage Library Perspectives in biology and medicine 48 2. Until recently, the subfamilial classification of the Burseraceae was in a fascinating state of flux, but as molecular systematic investigations progress and the results are reconciled with morphology, the Mexican endemic Beiselia is indicated as a monotypic tribe basal to the rest of the family Fig. The resin of the Burseraceae is nonallergenic and two ovules per carpel occur, whereas the resin of the Burserceae can be allergenic or poisonous and one ovule per carpel is found. Drukkerij Koch en Knuttel, Gouda.
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