I found it there a couple of months ago when I spotted this large housefly with a halo of spores surrounding it. Entomo- means insect, -phthora means destroyer, so this is the "insect destroyer. It is a member of an order of mostly entomoparasitic fungi called the Entomophthorales. Apparently this is an incorrect name. Thanks to Kathie Hodge of Cornell University for this clarification. So how did the fly get stuck to my window?
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Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales by D. First described by Cohn in from an epizootic of house flies, E. Appearance Patent infection in the house fly is characterized by a distended abdomen, legs spread and wings out-stretched see photograph above.
The intersegmental membranes of the swollen abdomen give the cadaver a characteristic striped pattern. The labellum may be lowered and the cadaver may be attached to the surface by the mouthparts.
A halo of primary conidia often surrounds the cadaver, and is particularly evident on glass surfaces. The release of primary conidia from the cadaver is termed a "conidial shower. Habitat Entomophthora muscae epizootics usually occur in the spring and fall of the year, and occur in most temperate regions. Sporulation is timed to coincide with periods of cool, and humid conditions in areas with an abundance of resting hosts. Such environmental conditions promote primary conidial production and disease transmission.
In the northeastern U. In agricultural settings, fly cadavers may be seen attached to the underside of plant leaves, along field margins, on fence rails and feed bunks, and in dairy barns and poultry houses.
Life Cycle There are at least two forms of conidia produced by E. Large primary conidia are produced soon after the fly dies, but in the event no hosts are available for the primary conidia, a smaller secondary conidia may develop from the primary conidia. Conidia are produced at the apex of a conidiophore, and when mature, are forcibly ejected onto the surrounding surface area.
Conidia may fall onto un-infected resting flies close-by. The fungus replicates in the fly hemolymph, and progressively consumes all the hemolymph in about days. In the evening hours, critically ill insects tend to crawl up verticle surfaces to die at an elevated position. Approximately 3 hours after death the condiophores begin to emerge from the intersegmental membranes to initiate the conidial shower. Seasonal abundance and Entomophthora muscae prevalence for house flies in Nebraska and climatological data.
Watson Relative Effectiveness Epizootics appear to be influenced by abiotic factors, particularly temperature Watson and Petersen When mid summer temperature were high the prevalence of disease decreased to near non existent levels, but recovered late in the season with the arrival of cooler field conditions. In laboratory studies, E. Conservation Unfortunately, E. Colonies are usually maintained through direct fly to fly transmissions. Hyphal bodies of E. However, artificial infection through injection has met with limited results.
Pesticide Susceptibility Insecticide residues significantly inhibited the germination of primary conidia Mullens and Rodriguez, Commercial Availability Entomophthora muscae is not commercially available. References Brobyn, P. Invasive and developmental process of Entomophthora muscae infecting house flies, Musca domestica. Humber, R. Collection of Entomopathogenic fungal cultures.
ARS Catalog of Strains. ARS Mullens, B. Insecticide effects on Entomophthora muscae, Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales. Entomophaga Watson, D. Mullens, and J. Behavioral fever response of Musca domestica Diptera: Muscidae to infection by Entomophthora muscae Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales. Seasonal activity of Entomophthora muscae Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales in Musca domestica Diptera: Muscidae with reference to temperature and relative humidity.
Biological Control 3: Typical conformation of a house fly cadaver infected with Entomophthora muscae. Photo: D.
Entomophthora muscae (Cohn) Fresen.
Schimmels Entomophthora muscae is een entomopathogene schimmel die vliegen en muggen Diptera parasiteert. Alvorens het slachtoffer sterft, dwingt de schimmel hem om omhoog te klimmen en zijn vleugels te spreiden, zodat de conidia sporen zich optimaal kunnen verspreiden. De schimmel is onderzocht als een potentieel biologisch bestrijdingsmiddel. Levenscyclus[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] De conidia van E. Er wordt een kiembuis gevormd die het exoskelet van het insect doorboort en protoplasten in de lichaamsvloeistof injecteert. De schimmeldraden groeien geleidelijk door het hele lichaam en verteren de lichaamssappen. Na ongeveer vijf tot zeven dagen na infectie dwingt de schimmel zijn gastheer om te landen en naar een hoog punt te klimmen.