CHANAKYA THE MASTER OF STATECRAFT PDF

About the Book When the learned Brahmin Vishnugupta is humiliated by the arrogant king Dhana Nanda in a public gathering he swears revenge. Anger is his weakness, but strategy, his strength. This formerly unknown Brahmin goes on to become the most well-known kingmaker in Indian History: Chanakya. Using a combination of cunning, ruthlessness and luck, Chanakya fulfils his vow and propels a boy of unknown origins, Chandragupta Maurya, to the throne of the most powerful kingdom of that time, an empire even Alexander the Great hesitated to confront. This fascinating account shows how Chanaky went from being a penniless fugitive with the rebel prince of Pataliputra to the prime minister of Magadha, and finally the author of the groundbreaking Arthashastra.

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Contact Us Chanakya: The man behind the force of power Although there is scant information on the life of this man, he nevertheless is remembered as the master of statecraft and the wizard of diplomacy.

His treatise, the Arthashashtra, gives us a rare insight into the evolution of systems of governance in India. Behind every powerful and successful ruler there has invariably been an astute thinker and advisor. Such an individual has often not merely been of courtly use or influenced the ruler but has made an impact on the times and in the long run has contributed to the development and enrichment of culture. Among the many in India, Chanakya or Kautilya stands tall as the celebrated author of Arthashastra and the brain behind the establishment of a strong central power in India under Chandragupta Maurya BC — BC.

Reliable information about his life is virtually unavailable and that which is available ends up being conflicting. There are innumerable controversies both related to his name as well as the time and authorship of Arthashastra. Born into a Brahmin family, Chanakya studied the science of warfare, architecture and medicine in Takshila University and also spent time teaching there.

Dhananand, the last of the kings of the Nanda dynasty, invited him to join the Magadha Empire which at that time had Pataliputra now Patna as its capital. It is learnt that he despised Dhanananda who was an oppressive and avaricious king.

In fact, once when Chanakya entered the assembly uninvited and occupied the main seat Dhanananda was so angry that he ordered his servants to drag him away. Chanakya was so upset that he pledged to avenge this behaviour by destroying the Nanda dynasty.

He left Magadha and by chance, met Chandragupta who was living in exile. The shrewd Brahmin, in pursuit of his aim, saw his opportunity and befriended the future monarch.

Chandragupta assured him that he would listen to his advice and travelled the extent of north western India where he trained people who lived along the borders.

Roman Conquest When Alexander invaded India in BC and defeated many border-lying states, he was impressed by the bravery of the army trained by Chandragupta and asked him to become his ally.

This was a good opportunity for the Indian general to acquaint himself with the European method of discipline and warfare. When the Macedonian leader was forced to turn back because of his own soldiers, he handed over the responsibility of managing the conquered territory to the Kshatrapas. With his death, later in Babylon in B. They roused the people against the Greeks who were foreign invaders and with the help of the people on the borders of the northwest region, wrested territories from them and then went on to attack and defeat Dhanananda, the Magadha king.

The defeat was possible because Chanakaya was the prime figure in creating discontent among the subjects of Dhanananda. His role in overthrowing the Nanda dynasty in Magadha has been so important that in the absence of Chanakya it is said that the change would not have been possible. For the first time in recorded history, a vast centralized empire Magadh was established in India with Pataliputra as its capital. Chanakya worked as the chief advisor and prime minister of Chandragupta.

So, whether he remained with Chandragupta for the rest of his life or returned to his village and lived like a common man for the rest of his days, no one will really know. What remains as part of history is the Arthashastra, which was written by him. Although he is known more for his Arthashashtra than as a founder and philosopher guide of Chandragupta and the Maurya Empire, his name cannot actually be found in the Arthashashtra. There is of course the concluding shloka of the work which states that it, Arthashashtra was composed by the person who rescued the weapons and the land that was in the possession of the Nanda kings.

Arthashastra The manuscript of the Arthashastra was discovered in and published by R. Shamasastry in It is generally assumed that this treatise was composed at the end of the 4th century BC. Consisting of fifteen chapters, its first five chapters focus on the internal administration of the State. The work consists of verses. In addition to these, there are four hundred and thirteen maxims which have been added that have not been ascribed to Kautilya.

This treatise is actually on the Arthashashtra which is a science concerned with acquisition and protection of earth. It is, as such, a science of statecraft or of politics and administration and explains the techniques of governance rather than political philosophy. For a clearer understanding, it would be worth taking a look at the contents of this monumental document. The Arthashashtra mentions seven essential elements of the State, according to their relative importance — the king swami , the minister amatya , the territory with people on it janapada , the fortified capital durga , the treasury kosha , the army danda and the ally mitra.

The king or the ruler is identified with the State and monarchy or the rule of a single individual is considered to be a normal form of government. A strong centralized power is advocated as it was believed that Alexander could conquer India because the small republics could not withstand the powerful aggressor.

Even though the King is all powerful he is in fact the servant of the State. His first and foremost duty is to protect his subjects from anti-social elements and natural calamities.

In short, he must look after the yogakshema welfare, well being and development of the subjects. This protection is given through danda punishment , which is exercised with justice. In order to be able and just, the king has to do more than just acquire learning. He must be able to exercise control over his own senses and his passions.

After the king, the minister is the next most important person in the kingdom. He is appointed by the king who assigns him specific responsibilities, one such being to advise the monarch. However, it is not imperative that his advice be taken. Apart from this, he is responsible for ensuring that various undertakings are carried out such as leading troops, settling and developing new territories and of course recovering fines and taxes.

The order of importance now moves to the territory and the people, then to the fortified capital. Here, extensive details about fort construction are given because of the important role it plays in defending the State.

The treasury is considered next because it determines the strength of the State. One of the sources of filling the treasury is the duty charged for goods that are imported, the other comes from agriculture in kind.

Open demands are made on citizens to replenish the treasury. Defending the State The defence of the State depends on the fort and the army. And in the case of the army, it can be used for offence as well as defence. If, in the process, the army is defeated in battle, the king is rendered helpless and he is at the mercy of the enemy.

The treatise elaborates on how soldiers should be drawn from all four varnas, details their training requirements, emphasizes the sort of weapons they should use and suggests precautions to be taken while planning an expedition including keeping ready physicians and surgeons with medicines, instruments and bandages.

A strong army attracts allies. An ally is encouraged to be a support to the state and not participate in any way in its internal matters. Nation and Prosperity The Arthashashtra is a comprehensive treatise which aims at teaching kings about statecraft with the intention of ensuring an efficient administration for the prosperity and wellbeing of its subjects.

In modern terms, it is concerned with public administration, the role of the central executive, consultative bodies, the civil service and provincial and local government. In addition to this there is the system to ensure accountability and control and a means for meting out punishment to those that err. This is perhaps the oldest text on public administration anywhere in the world and it provides an important source material for understanding Indian history and culture.

As importantly, it represents the view that social order should be preserved and insists on the relevance of educating leaders to ensure social tranquillity. In the broader perspective, he plays an important role in the evolution of systems of governance. Author: V.

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Chanakya: the Master of Statecraft

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CHANAKYA THE MASTER OF STATECRAFT PDF

Start your review of Chanakya: the Master of Statecraft Write a review Shelves: historical-fiction I, Chanakya, vow not to bind my hair until I have unseated you from the throne of Magadha. When learned Brahmin Vishnugupta is humiliated by arrogant king Dhana Nanda in a public gathering, he swears revenge. Anger is his weakness, but strategy, his strength. This formerly unknown Brahmin goes on to become the most well-known kingmaker in Indian history: Chanakya. Using a combination of cunning, ruthlessness and luck, Chanakya fulfils his vow and propels a boy of unknown origins, Chandragupta Maurya, to the throne of the most powerful kingdom of that time, an empire even Alexander the Great hesitated to confront. This fascinating account shows how Chanakya went from being a penniless fugitive with the rebel prince of Pataliputra to the prime minister of Magadha, and finally the author of the groundbreaking Arthashastra.

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