Two reasons for this discrepancy are discussed: 1 Suicides are the consequence of maladaptation to the restrictive living conditions in forensic psychiatry, and 2 suicides are explained by the demographic, social, and psychosocial characteristics of the inmates themselves, i. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the relationship between quality of life, as an indicator of the restrictive living conditions, and hopelessness, depression, and suicide ideations in a sample of forensic patients. The study included a total of patients in 12 German forensic psychiatric hospitals who had been admitted in accordance with Section 64 of the German Criminal Code. We analyzed the relationships between quality of life and depression, hopelessness, and suicide ideations on the patient and hospital levels. Hospital characteristics were generated by aggregating the MQPL-forensic variables measured at the patient level.
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Suyog V Jaiswal, E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Suicide is a psychiatric emergency.
Stressors in life and social variables like marital status, family, and social support are among the determinants of suicide. Hopelessness and suicidal intent are among the psychological variables that have shown promise in the prediction of suicide. Aims and Objectives: To assess stressful life events, hopelessness, suicidal intent, and sociodemographic variables in patients of attempted suicide.
Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive patients admitted with attempted suicide were interviewed. Data were analyzed with statistical tests. Sixty-six percent of the patients had stressful life event score between and with the mean score of The stressful life event score in those who considered they are in need of psychiatric help was significantly high. The mean suicidal intent in the participants was Conclusion: Lethality of the attempt increases with the increase in hopelessness.
Methods Ethics: The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethics committee and written, informed consent was taken from all patients. Confidentiality was maintained using unique identifiers. Design and sample size: A cross sectional study in 50 consecutive patients with suicide attempts admitted either to the internal medicine ward or medical intensive care unit. Selection criteria: Those above 18 years and willing to consent were included.
Critically ill patients were excluded. All participants were interviewed within 48 hours of admission. It is a list of 51 life events relevant to the Indian setting given a score based on the mean score of general population standardized for two time frames — Past 1 year and lifetime. The total score is used as stressful life event score. The total score ranges from 0 to 20 Minimal, Mild, Moderate, and Severe.
The internal reliability of this scale ranges from 0. Score is calculated from first 15 items, ranging from 0 to 30 Low intent, Medium intent, and 29 or more: High intent. The internal reliability of the scale is 0.
Scores were assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test and non normal scores between men and women analyzed using the Mann Whitney U test. All analyses were carried out using SPSS version Results The demographics mean age of the participants was The mean stressful life event score for the total study population was The mean score for the total study population was 9.
The mean suicidal intent score in the sample population was Discussion Majority of the participants in this study were females. Though females attempt suicide approximately three times as often as males,[ 11 ] Indian data suggest the ratio as The possible explanation can be as follows: Those with higher stress levels might have already sought help and prevented the event or might have adopted more lethal and planned measures so that they never reached the hospital.
The participants with lesser stressful event score might have eventually coped with the situation rather than taking escape by attempting suicide. The patients who believed they need psychiatric help had significantly higher mean stressful life event score [ Table 1 ].
This finding supports the hypothesis that those with higher stressful event score may seek help to come out of it rather than attempt suicide. The stressful life events had no correlation to suicidal intent or hopelessness. This was similar to the study of Kar. Literature suggests that recent adverse life events contribute to the increased risk of suicide[ 13 ] and vulnerability for suicidal behavior.
Clinical Assessment Canada
February 18, Add Topic To Email Alerts Please provide your email address to receive an email when new articles are posted on this topic. Submit Receive an email when new articles are posted on this topic. Hopelessness is likely a driving factor for suicidal ideation in patients with depressive disorder, largely because it covaries with depressive symptoms, according to study findings published in Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. However, researchers noted that severity of depressive symptoms may predict suicidal ideation more accurately than hopelessness. To determine its explanatory power and predictive value, Baryshnikov and colleagues analyzed data from patients with depressive disorder who were included in the Vantaa Depression Studies from to In the present study, the researchers conducted a mixed-effects generalized linear regression and clustered receiver-operating characteristics analysis to test the predictive power of BDI and BHS for severe suicidal ideation within and between patients. Data reference: Baryshnikov I, et al.
Standardization of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in the general population.
Is there anywhere online where you can read the questions in the Beck Hopelessness Scale test? Just to reiterate, I do not want to die, I just want to see what questions I would have to answer to be in a state of mind to do so -- see? Anyway, anybody know where I could read the Beck Hopelessness Scale test questions without actually going to take the test? Thanks for reading.