In the early s, the artist, follower of Tristan Tzara and of the other Dadaists, broke completely with the movement, disillusioned from the Dada ideas. It is on this occasion the first Surrealist Manifesto appears, which will subjugate an entire generation of literary and visual artists. His parents imposed a hard Catholic education on him, after which he decided to pursue medical studies. After the war, Breton combines the important encounters: he befriended Guillaume Apollinaire and Louis Aragon, with whom he shares viewpoints on art.
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In the early s, the artist, follower of Tristan Tzara and of the other Dadaists, broke completely with the movement, disillusioned from the Dada ideas. It is on this occasion the first Surrealist Manifesto appears, which will subjugate an entire generation of literary and visual artists.
His parents imposed a hard Catholic education on him, after which he decided to pursue medical studies. After the war, Breton combines the important encounters: he befriended Guillaume Apollinaire and Louis Aragon, with whom he shares viewpoints on art. In this journal the texts using the surrealist techniques already appear, such as the famous Magnetic Fields , where Breton is already experimenting with automatic writing.
The meeting of Breton and Tzara is somewhat ambiguous: the author says of his idol that he is a "not so charismatic" being, but says that it was the effect he hoped to feel when meeting him. Francis Picabia - Dada painter and writer at the time who will follow Breton in the surrealism - Breton and Tzara organize de Dada demonstrations in Paris Breton loses hope in the Dada movement. It was in that Breton and those who follow him separate officially from the Dada movement by founding the surrealism, through a series of manifestos.
In the first of these proclamations, Breton describes surrealism as "pure psychic automatism by which one proposes to express, either verbally or in writing or otherwise, the actual functioning of the thought. Breton lives ambiguous love relationships, from which he takes inspiration for Nadja, one of his masterpieces: So, the first two volumes of the novel talk about Leona Delcourt, one of his mistresses, and the third, about Suzanne Muzard, mistress, then the wife of Emmanuel Delcourt, French journalist of the time.
Simone Kahn, who until then was an important actress of the surreal scene, breaks, at the time of the break-up, every link with the members of this movement. Together, they compose the manifesto for an independent revolutionary art.
Back in France, he has to fight against his old friend, Tzara, who presents himself as the Surrealism leader, as well as against an author who is gaining more and more influence, Jean-Paul Sartre, who, his entire career, will endeavor to demolish surrealism. Passionate about the theory, Breton will have never stopped writing essays and books about literature, art and vocation of art. He was buried in Paris, at the cemetery of Batignolles.
André Breton, Father of Surrealism
Breton drafted a third Surrealist Manifesto, which was never issued. The document defines Surrealism as: Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express -- verbally, by means of the written word, or in any other manner -- the actual functioning of thought. Dictated by the thought, in the absence of any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern. The text includes numerous examples of the applications of Surrealism to poetry and literature, but makes it clear that the tenets of Surrealism can be applied in any circumstance of life, and is not merely restricted to the artistic realm. The importance of the dream as a reservoir of Surrealist inspiration is also highlighted.
Voodoozshura Manifestoes of Surrealism Because, through his replies, he obtrudes upon the attention of the doctor examining him — and because he is not the person asking the questions. But this was supposed to be a Manifesto, not a rant. Here are two passages by Nerval which seem to me to be bretkn significant in this respect: In what happens to him or might happen, he will perceive only what relates such events to a host of similar events, events in which he has not taken part, waste events. For now, I think of a castle, of which at least half is not sirrealism in ruins; the castle belongs to me, I picture it in a rural setting not far from Paris. The movement was not long in bursting in vaults which were hated and excommunicated.