These houses were very important to all aspects of their lives: material, social and ritual. Houses were roughly rectangular and closely built together with no streets in-between. Instead, people moved around on roofs and accessed their homes down a wooden ladder via an opening in the ceiling. Illustration by John Swogger. Each central room had an oven below the stairs where people carried out domestic tasks such as cooking.
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It was built in what is now Turkey about 6, BC not long after farming began. Catal Huyuk probably had a population of about 6, In Catal Huyuk the houses were made of mud brick. Houses were built touching against each other. They did not have doors and houses were entered through hatches in roofs.
Presumably having entrances in the roofs was safer then having them in the walls. Catal Huyuk was unusual among early towns as it was not surrounded by walls. Since houses were built touching each other the roofs must have acted as streets! People must have walked across them. In Catal Huyuk there were no panes of glass in windows and houses did not have chimneys. Instead there were only holes in the roofs to let out smoke. Inside houses were plastered and often had painted murals of people and animals on the walls.
People slept on platforms. In Catal Huyuk the dead were buried inside houses. Although they may have been exposed outside to be eaten by vultures first. Although Catal Huyuk was a true town defined as a community not self-sufficient in food as least some of its people lived by farming.
They grew wheat and barley and they raised flocks of sheep and herds of goats. They also kept dogs. As well as farming the inhabitants of Catal Huyuk also hunted animals like aurochs wild cattle , wolves, foxes and leopards. People in Catal Huyuk wore clothes woven from wool. They also wore jewellery made of stone, bone and shell. The people of Catal Huyuk wove baskets of reeds.
They also made pottery and they used obsidian, a hard volcanic rock to make tools and weapons. Craftsmen made dishes of wood. They also made carved wooden boxes for storage. We do not know what the people of Catal Huyuk believed but religion was obviously important to them. They made figurines of clay and stone, which may have been gods and goddesses.
It is believed these buildings were shrines. Catal Huyuk was abandoned about 5, BC. Nobody knows why but it may have been due to climate change.
Catal Huyuk was then forgotten for thousands of years till it was rediscovered by James Melaart in He began excavating Catal Huyuk in Posted by.
CATAL HUYUK ARCHITECTURE PDF
Mellaart, the original excavator, argued that these well-formed, carefully made figurines, carved and molded from marble, blue and brown limestone, schist, calcite, basalt, alabaster, and clay, represented a female deity. These artfully-hewn figurines were found primarily in areas Mellaart believed to be shrines. The stately goddess seated on a throne flanked by two lionesses illustration was found in a grain bin, which Mellaart suggests might have been a means of ensuring the harvest or protecting the food supply. Whereas Mellaart excavated nearly two hundred buildings in four seasons, the current excavator, Ian Hodder, spent an entire season excavating one building alone. They found one similar figurine, but the vast majority did not imitate the Mother Goddess style that Mellaart suggested. Instead of a Mother Goddess culture, Hodder points out that the site gives little indication of a matriarchy or patriarchy. There are full breasts on which the hands rest, and the stomach is extended in the central part.
Mellaart, J. James Mellart also published a general book on the site Mellaart, J. London: Thames and Hudson. The season on the west mound was reported in Mellaart, J.